# Information Form

    The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located just below the cartilage called Adam’s apple in the anterior part of the neck. It weighs about 20 grams. It secretes hormones that are vital for our body. In case of deficiency or excess, it can cause very serious discomfort and complaints. Thyroid gland problems, which are more common in women than men, can also be the basis for many ailments. Thyroid gland functions are also very important for general body health. Because the imbalance in thyroid hormone level negatively affects the functioning of other organs and systems. Thyroid hormones are the leading hormones that affect metabolism and affect basal metabolism, heat balance, fat and sugar metabolism, fat burning and food consumption. When thyroid functions are impaired, weight changes and changes in the body’s energy consumption occur. In the case of under-secretion of thyroid hormones, that is hypothyroidism, energy consumption during rest is reduced. In hypothyroidism, the change in energy consumption causes changes in fat stores and weight gain occurs.

    Considering that we are one of the countries where thyroid diseases are common, it is important to perform thyroid examinations and scans with great care.

    Thyroid nodules

    The lumps in the thyroid gland. They can be single or multiple. Those who secrete hormones are called hot nodules and those who do not secrete hormones are called cold nodules. The distinction is made by thyroid scintigraphy. Good-bad separation of nodules is performed by fine-needle biopsy. Simple benign nodules can be followed without removal.

    Thyroid gland inflammation

    They are called acute, transient and chronic depending on the duration of the disease. Acute thyroiditis starts quickly and lasts short. Transient thyroiditis can last up to a year. Subacute thyroiditis, postnatal thyroiditis, and radiation-induced thyroiditis are in this group. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most well-known chronic thyroiditis. It can last a lifetime. Autoimmune occurs for reasons. It is one of the major causes of hypothyroidism in society. It can sometimes be seen with thyroid cancer. Hormone drugs are used in the treatment.

    What are the common diseases of the thyroid?



    Thyroid cancers

    What is goiter?

    Goiter is caused by the growth of the thyroid gland for various reasons. Usually, these growths occur in the form of nodules in the thyroid gland. They can be single or multiple. They may be in the form of cysts with fluid. In diffuse goiter, the thyroid gland is generally enlarged. Although very common, they are very benign. The nodules can be in millimeters or large sizes covering the entire neck. Thyroid nodules should be examined.


    What are the symptoms?

    They are largely asymptomatic. However, it can be seen as a growing mass in the anterior part of the neck. As the size increases, they may cause shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing and hoarseness. Hyperactive nodules secreting too much thyroid hormone into the blood, increase in heart rate, irritability, weight loss, trembling and sweating in hands,

    insomnia manifests itself with diarrhea. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are slowing in heart rate, weight gain, constipation, depression, fatigue in the body, hair breakage and shedding, skin dryness, forgetfulness, and menstrual irregularities.


    What is hyperthyroidism?

    Hyperthyroidism (poisonous goiter) is the condition where the thyroid gland secretes excess hormones. Toxic goiter may be nodular or non-nodular. Non-nodular poisonous Adam’s apple is also called Basedow Graves Disease.

    What are the symptoms of thyroid disease for early diagnosis and treatment?

    Weight gain and inability to lose weight: Hypothyroidism can cause weight gain while hyperthyroidism can cause weight loss.

    Swelling and pain in the neck: Goiter may be a precursor of thyroid nodule or cyst.

    Palpitations, tremor in the hands: Thyroid gland overwork may be in the case of hyperthyroidism.

    Excessive sweating: Thyroid overwork is an important reason for excessive sweating.

    Skin thickening: Maybe a symptom of hypothyroidism.

    Anemia: Usually associated with anemia in hypothyroidism

    Muscle twitching and aches: Thyroid disorders, muscle pain, and muscle weakness may cause.

    Hair loss: Thyroid gland can do more or less work, sometimes there may be accompanying eyebrows.

    Blood pressure elevation: Thyroid disorders may be accompanied by blood pressure imbalance.

    Constipation: Especially in cases where the thyroid gland is low.

    Menstrual imbalances: Most thyroid diseases can cause menstrual irregularities, sometimes as the first symptom.

    Infertility: Thyroid hormone imbalances cause difficulties in getting pregnant.

    Hoarseness: In thyroid diseases, there may be changes in vocal timbre as well as hoarseness.

    Eyebrow loss: Thyroid diseases can cause loss of hair on the outside of the eyebrows with or without hair loss.

    Edema: Less work of the thyroid increases water uptake in the body and edema develops.

    Changes in mood: Thyroid diseases can cause stress, panic attacks, and depression.

    When surgical intervention is required in thyroid diseases.

    If the nodule is over 1cm

    If the biopsy result is suspicious

    If the nodule is big enough to put pressure on your trachea

    it should be operated even if it is not suspicious.

    From the outside, it is obvious that if the neck swelling disturbs you can be operated.


    Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Female gender. Thyroid cancer is more common in women.

    High radiation exposure. Sources include high levels of radiation, head, and neck radiation treatments, and nuclear power plant accident or weapon testing.

    Specific hereditary genetic syndromes.

    Familial predispositions that increase the risk of thyroid cancer. While malignant nodules are detected with good ultrasonography, surgical intervention is an operation that requires great care and attention.

    Generally, a good surgical intervention can be sufficient for thyroid cancer.

    Symptoms of thyroid cancer

    Thyroid gland cancer is usually asymptomatic. It may occur in patients followed for goiter or by chance tests for another disease. Rarely neck mass, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing; very rarely it may occur with bone fractures or hyperthyroidism (poisonous goiter). 30 percent of patients with medullary cancer may have reddening, diarrhea, and fatigue. Therefore, even the initial thyroid cancers are very likely to be diagnosed today. However, it should be noted that 50 percent of thyroid nodules are detected in autopsy studies. In other words, there are still thyroid nodules in the population that cannot be detected even by ultrasound.


    If there is any suspicion after the detection of a nodule in the thyroid gland, a fine needle aspiration biopsy from the nodule reveals whether the thyroid nodules are malignant. Fine needle aspiration is a low-risk, rapid, and easy-to-use method in good hands. If the biopsy results are benign and the patient has no other complaints, thyroid nodules can be followed. If the biopsy is suspicious or malignant, the treatment is started.


    Who is at Risk?

    Persons with a family history of thyroid diseases such as goiter, thyroid nodule, thyroid cancer, and thyroiditis,

    People who have undergone previous surgery for thyroid nodules,


    Women in menopause,

    Head and neck irradiation (radiation therapy) people should have regular control and follow-up.


    Thyroid hormone drugs are used in the treatment. There is no possibility of complete recovery in patients with very small thyroid gland. The points that patients should pay attention to this process can be listed as follows;

    »Iodized salt and iodized cough syrup should not be used.

    »Selenium support may be useful in this process.

    »It increases the effect of hormone drugs on an empty stomach.

    »If the drug is not taken on time, it should be taken at the next meal. However, care should be taken not to take any other medicines at meals taken.

    »Patients planning to conceive should consult a specialist. The use of thyroid medications during pregnancy will continue, otherwise the risk of miscarriage increases. Medicines do not harm the baby. Because pain is seen in the disease, painkillers or hormone drugs are used depending on the severity. The disease is treated with medication, surgical treatment is not applied.